Related Publications and Resources

Useful Related Research

Ambidextrous Organization

  • this creates the most relevant framework for the application of the MEL Index – that is, a setting in which companies must work simultaneously to do current activities better while stimulating and responding to change.

Charles O’Reilly III and Michael Tushman, “The Ambidextrous Organization,” Harvard Business Review, April, 2004.

  • this original article examines the mental balancing act required of executives to explore new opportunities even as they work diligently to exploit existing capabilities. Emphasizes the creation of organizationally distinct units that are tightly integrated at the senior executive level

Michael Tushman, Wendy Smith and Andy Binns, “The Ambidextrous CEO,” Harvard Business Review, June, 2011

  • shows that balancing the needs of core businesses and innovation efforts is a central leadership task. Reveals that when conflicts about funding old and new businesses are resolved at lower levels, innovation usually loses out.

Managing Innovation

  • when setting up the MEL Institute we saw that one of the most important aspects of studying the manager, entrepreneur and leader interface was its impact on the innovation profile of the institution.

Steven Wheelwright and Kim Clark, ”Creating Project Plans to Focus Product Development,” Harvard Business Review, March, 1992.

  • this “golden oldie” is still very much worth reading. Innovation is categorized as derivative, platform and breakthrough. Combining these development approaches provides an aggregate project plan that must be guided by strong leadership and early involvement from senior management.

Vijay Govindarajan and Chris Trimble, “The CEO’s Role in Business Model Reinvention,” Harvard Business Review, Jan-Feb, 2011

    • explains how a forward looking CEO must do three things: manage the present, selectively forget the past, and create the future. This requires close attention to strategy formulation, accountability, and organizational design.

    MEL Interface

    • although little has been done to examine the manager, entrepreneur and leader interaction – a critical oversight in our opinion –  useful work is available on the link between some of the archetypes.

    John Kotter, “What Leaders Really Do,” Harvard Business Review, December, 2001

    • this classic draws the distinction between managers – who cope with complexity by bringing order and predictability to a situation – and leaders, who must learn how to adapt to and cope with rapid change.

    Bala Chakravarthy and Peter Lorange, “Driving Renewal: The Entrepreneur-Manager,” Journal of Business Strategy, #2, 2008

    •  the authors believe we need a dedicated and special kind of manager to execute renewal. They refer to this individual as an entrepreneur-manager, a hybrid between an external entrepreneur and a good operating manager (notably, our MEL research to-date indicates that the combination of traits required to be an entrepreneur-manager are very hard to find).

    Further Readings

    • a full bibliography of applied readings on managers, entrepreneurs and leaders will be available shortly on the website. Moreover, the MEL Newsletter will contain summaries of recent, relevant publications that explore how successful companies effectively manage the present while preparing for the future.  





    • Birkinshaw , Julian & Gibson, Cristina : Building Ambidexterity Into an Organization ; MIT Sloan Management Review; Summer 2004
    • Birkinshaw, Julian & Raisch, Sebastian : Organizational Ambidexterity : Antecedents, Outcomes an Moderators ; Journal of Management 2008
    • Chakravarthy, Bala & Lorange, Peter : Driving Renewal : the entrepreneur-manager ; Journal of Business Strategy 2008, Vol. 29
    • Czarniawska-Joerges, Barbara & Wolff, Rolf : Leadewrs, Managers, Entrepreneurs On and Off the Organizational Stage; Organization Studies 1991
    • Collins, Jim : Good to Great ; HarperCollins Publishers 2001
    • Hamel, Gary & C.K. Prahalad : Competing for the Future ; Harvard Business School Press 1996
    • Hesselbein,Francis & Goldsmith, Marshall (Editors): The Leader of the Future ; Jossey-Brass 2006
    • Kotter, John P. : What Leaders really do ; Harvard Busines Review Book 1999
    • Minzberg, Henry : Managing ; Berrett-Koehler Publishers 2009
    • Rigby, Darell K. & Gruver, Kara & Allen, James : Innovation in Turbulent Times, HBR J une 2009
    • Smilor, Raymond W. & Sexton, Donald L. (Editor) : Leadership and Entrepreneurship ; Quorum Books 1996
    • Thornberry, Neil : Lead like an Entrepreneur ; McGraw Hill, 2006
    • Tushman, Michael L. & O`Reilly, Charles A. : Winning through Innovation; Harvard Business School Press 1997
    • Ulrich, Dave & Smallwood, Norm : How Leaders build Value ; John Wiley & Sons 2003